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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 134-142

A cross-sectional study on epidemiology and clinical profile of cleft lip and palate at a tertiary care hospital in Manipur, India

Department of Plastic Surgery, Shija Hospitals and Research Institute Pvt. Ltd., Imphal, Manipur, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Indranil Dutta
Doctors' Quarter No. 4, Shija Hospitals and Research Institute Pvt. Ltd., Imphal - 795 004, Manipu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jclpca.jclpca_8_21

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Background: Cleft lip (CL) and palate have a complex etiology with both genetics and environment playing a role. The risk factors such as folic acid deficiency, maternal age, and maternal smoking have been linked to the development of clefts. Objectives: The objective of this study is to study the different types of CL and palate with respect to age distribution, gender, caste, religion, socioeconomic status, and the clinical factors such as congenital anomalies, blood group, and the relationship with maternal addiction during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present study conducted among 260 patients of Manipur with primary CL, palate, and orofacial clefts of any age group. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by the descriptive statistics as mean, standard deviation, percentage/proportions, etc. For the qualitative data, the association between various variables was done by applying one-way Chi-square test at 5% (P = 0.05) level of significance. Results: Female (51.2%) children are more affected with CL and palate. Association of A +ve blood group is statistically significant. 36.2% belongs to lower middle class socioeconomic status. The proportion of consanguineous marriages was higher. 60% of mothers smoke cigarettes or consume tobacco at the time of pregnancy in association with CL and palate. Majority of the cases had left-sided CL and palate and 47.3% were Group III CL and palate. There was significant association of congenital anomalies (38.5%) among CL and palate patients. Conclusion: There is a strong association of maternal smoking or tobacco consumption, maternal alcohol consumption, consanguineous marriages, and A +ve blood group in relation to CL and palate.

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